Lots of things affect how an instrument sounds. Of course the woods used play a part, but also the shape itself, type of neck join, the finish, the pickups, and most of all who's playing! Below are brief descriptions of some of the most often used woods. Other types can also be used, and Andy can provide further information on request.
Mahogany: warm rich mellow mid range; a Gibson s.g. type of sound
Mahogany and maple: mellow low and mid ranges. This combination is typified by the Gibson Les Paul
Alder: high mids with top end. Most associated with the Fender stratocaster.
Rock maple: low end and top end both very bright. Rickenbacker use rock maple in many of their guitars
Ash: low end with clear top end and a punchy sound
Maple: glassy very bright
Rosewood: warmer tone
Maple: snappy, typical fender sound
Mahogany: fatter, typical gibson sound
Flamed maple: give low mids and highs. A harder maple
Quilted maple: low and high mids more 'honky' sounding. A soft maple
Birds eye maple: lows and highs, again a hard maple
Pickups and Electrics
Active (with preamp) or passive.
Typically manufactured by Fender, Gibson, Kent Armstrong, Seymour Duncan, Schaller, Lawrence, E.M.G., Bartolini, Gotoh, or DiMarzio.
Acoustic pickups are positioned under the saddle, in a sound hole with or without goose neck microphone. Again passive or active systems are possible.
Headway, Fishman, L.R. Baggs, Schaller, Seymour Duncan, Dimazio, Highlander, Martin, Yamaha, Takamine.
Bridges and tuning pegs are made by Schaller and are available in chrome, black, or gold. Other hardware is also available on request.